enlightened despots, Catherine the Great played a key role in fostering the arts, sciences, and education. The Enlightenment: The Rise of Modern Paganism (1966, 2nd. Prior to the age of enlightenment, these monarchs ruled under the guise of holy doctrines, such as the bible, in a Christian society. Like the scientific revolution before it, the new Enlightenment era's ideas were spread both through art and through writing, in texts such as Denis Diderot's Encyclopedia which was printed and sold to the French middle class. 55 However, in general the universities and schools of France and most of Europe were bastions of traditionalism and were not hospitable to the Enlightenment.
See Rolf Engelsing, "Die Perioden der Lesergeschichte in der Neuzeit. This legitimized the how to incorporate quotes into an essay promotion of German language and culture and helped shape the development of German nationalism. Smith, in his monumental Wealth of Nations (1776 advocated liberty in the sphere of commerce and the global economy. 123 Immanuel Kant also wrote a response, referring to Enlightenment as "man's release from his self-incurred tutelage tutelage being "man's inability to make use of his understanding without direction from another". 126 In other words, the revolutionaries elevated to heroic status those philosophers, such as Voltaire and Rousseau, who could be used to justify their radical break with the Ancien Régime. Spain relapsed after his death. However, as the analysis of many "public" institutions of the Enlightenment will show, this sphere was only public to relative degrees. Author of L'Histoire Naturelle considered Natural Selection and the similarities between humans and apes. 111 In the 18th century, they expanded into an extremely widespread collection of interconnected (to varying degrees) men's, and occasionally women's, associations which Margaret Jacob contends had their own mythologies and special codes of conduct - including a communal understanding of liberty and equality inherited. The Enlightenment (1995) 157pp excerpt and text search Outram, Dorinda.